Orbiter Finance: End Game for ZK Proofs Aggregation

4 min readMar 13, 2024


ZK is the END GAME for scaling the blockchain, yet the journey toward widespread adoption remains extensive.

The overhead of verifying Proof is still very substantial

In the blockchain industry, there are now a variety of Zero-Knowledge Proof Systems. These include Pairing-based systems, such as Groth16 and Halo2-KZG, as well as Hash-based systems like ZK-STARK and Plonky2. However, the verification overhead for these proof systems remains relatively high at present. This can be observed in the total cost of verification for both pairing-based SNARKs and STARKs, as demonstrated by the data dashboard provided.

So, what is the END GAME to solve this severe challenge?

A New Paradigm of Proofs Aggregation From Orbiter

In the current state of proof verification, it’s important to note that each proof corresponds to a specific verifier smart contract on the EVM network. Many Zero-Knowledge (ZK) development tools offer their own Solidity/Yul code automation generators. Examples include Halo2-KZG’s snark-verifier, circom, and gnark, among others. ZK developers frequently utilize these tools to generate and deploy proof verification smart contracts on EVM-compatible networks.

Subsequently, proofs are verified by submitting them to these smart contracts.

To further enhance the efficiency of proof verification in the EVM network, a Proof Aggregation Layer is employed. This layer acts as an intermediary between individual proofs and the BatchVerifier. Various proofs from different Zero-Knowledge proof systems — like Plonk-Halo2kzg, groth16-gnark, and STARK-stone — are aggregated by this layer. After aggregation, the combined proof is sent to a single BatchVerifier smart contract, which efficiently verifies all the proofs in a single operation, significantly streamlining the process on the EVM network.

The Proof Aggregation Layer boasts distinctive features:

  • Permissionless: This layer is designed to be developer-friendly. One only needs to deploy their Zero-Knowledge Proof (ZKP) verification smart contract and submit their proof to the network. The ZK proofs can then be verified on the receiving side with minimal additional gas cost.
  • Security: The security of the proof aggregation process is ensured entirely by cryptographic primitives, without reliance on any third-party consensus layer.
  • Efficiency and Cost-Effectiveness: The overhead for proofs verification is significantly reduced. As more proofs are aggregated, the savings in gas costs multiply, leading to both rapid verification and lower expenses.

What will it bring to Ethereum?

The upcoming Dencun hard fork is expected to significantly impact network efficiency, with Data Availability (DA) overhead decreasing by approximately 6X, as observed from the Sepolia testnet. This reduction in overhead may result in fluctuating prices, which will depend on user behavior and market dynamics. Let’s anticipate how the market will respond once the mainnet goes live.

It is crucial to understand that the verification of proofs involves complex calculations that are executed on-chain. As the expenditure on data availability (DA) decreases, the proportion of costs due to on-chain proof verification will rise. This is especially important for Layer 2 solutions operating in Validium mode, where a significant portion of their operating costs is dedicated to this resource-intensive computational task.

The integration of the proof aggregation layer will significantly benefit Layer2 solutions. This layer ensures that the security of the proofs remains uncompromised while simultaneously optimizing the system.

Additionally, users of Layer2 will experience a substantial reduction in gas fees due to the increased efficiency brought about by proof aggregation.

We are a dynamic team eager to take on new challenges, and we’ve developed our own solution for GPU-accelerated ZKP, with proof times that are consistently decreasing week by week.

Currently, our Proof Aggregation Layer is undergoing integration and testing. We are excited to share our product design and will soon launch a testnet for the community’s use.

Together, let’s work towards scaling Ethereum!




Orbiter Finance is a decentralized cross-rollup Layer 2 bridge with a contract only on the destination side.